By the end of the Middle Ages….

“By the end of the Middle Ages, the common opinion in Europe was that celestial bodies were moved by external intelligences, identified with the angels of revelation. The outermost moving sphere, which moved with the daily motion affecting all subordinate spheres, was moved by an unmoved mover, the Prime Mover, who was identified with God. Each of the lower spheres was moved by a subordinate spiritual mover (a replacement for Aristotle’s multiple divine movers), called an intelligence.”

Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavenly_sphere>

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